Author: Supplement Sciences

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Hormone Replacement Therapy: Drug-Nutrient Interactions

Drug-Nutrient Interactions: 

  • Caffeine: The stimulating effects of caffeine may be increased due to inhibition of metabolism or clearance of caffeine by hormone replacement therapy.
  • Calcium and Vitamin D: Calcium and vitamin D may increase the absorption of hormone replacements. These supplements are recommended to improve bone mineral density during estrogen therapy. 
  • Red Clover Extract and Soy Isoflavones: These supplements may interfere with the activity or absorption of hormone replacement therapy.
  • St. John’s Wort: St. John’s wort may alter hormone metabolism including estrogen and progesterone. This supplement is not recommended during hormone replacement therapy. 

Drug-Induced Nutrient Depletion: Hormone replacement medications such as such as Estrace®, Premarin®,  Prempro® have been shown to deplete Folate, Vitamin B6, B12, and Magnesium. Bioidentical hormone replacement has been shown to deplete B6. [PMC5874849]

Suggested Nutrient Replacements:

  • Multivitamin: This will include Folate, Vitamin B6, B12 plus multiple other nutrients.

Food First: Why Supplements + Poor Food Choices Won’t Add Up To Good Health

Supplement-Sciences.com is a website designed to educate readers on the benefits of nutrients as they relate to health. Although every nutrient can be purchased in supplement form, that would be incredibly expensive, impractical, and ineffective in improving your health. And it wouldn’t taste good.

As dietitians, our goal is to provide you with the science of how each nutrient impacts your health and well-being. When you see the peer-reviewed research on the health benefits of various nutrient supplements and how they impact so many health problems, you’ll understand that the given nutrient isn’t just good for you, it’s vital to your body’s function.

Then, when you see the cost of supplementing that nutrient vs. getting a superior source of that nutrient through food, we know that you will probably want to choose nutrient-dense food. And that is the clandestine goal of Supplement-Sciences: to provide you with the evidence to motivate you to make the best food choices and to supplement only what you need.

Nutrient Synergy And Complexity In Whole Foods

Whole foods contain a complex array of nutrients that interact and work together to promote health. This synergy improves the bioavailability and absorption of nutrients, leading to more efficient utilization by the body. For example, the combination of vitamin C and iron in spinach increases iron absorption. Additionally, whole foods provide a variety of bioactive compounds, such as antioxidants and phytonutrients, that work together to protect against chronic diseases like heart disease and cancer. Unlike most supplements, whole foods offer a natural balance of nutrients that support overall well-being more effectively.

Dietary Fiber, Phytonutrients, and Their Role in Gut Health

In recent years, advances in research have led to the profound realization that the microbiome and gut health is connected to every aspect of physical and mental health. And you can’t get a healthy microbiome without the right combination of real foods. Supplements can have a role, but food choices are at the heart of a healthy gut.

Dietary fiber and phytonutrients play crucial roles in maintaining gut health. Fiber is found abundantly in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and beans. It is essential for promoting regular bowel function and acts as a prebiotic to feed beneficial gut bacteria and support a healthy microbiome. This, in turn, contributes to improved digestion, nutrient absorption, and overall immune function. Leaky gut may be at the heart of inflammatory conditions from autoimmunity and arthritis to heart disease and Alzheimer’s.

In plant foods, phytonutrients are bioactive compounds that have many different health benefits. Many phytonutrients possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which can help protect the gut lining from damage and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer.

Not only that, the combination of fiber and phytonutrients in whole plant foods provides nutrients that work together synergistically to create effects that improve gut health. For example, certain types of fiber can act as a substrate for gut bacteria to produce short-chain fatty acids, which help maintain intestinal barrier function and reduce inflammation. These fatty acids travel to the brain acting as neurotransmitters. There are probably hundreds of other as-yet unstudied molecules that have other effects. Keeping the gut microbiome healthy is critical.

Incorporating many different fiber-rich foods and phytonutrient-rich fruits and vegetables into the diet is necessary for supporting optimal gut health. This includes consuming a variety of colors and types of plant foods to ensure a broad spectrum of phytonutrients and fiber types. By prioritizing these nutrient-rich foods, people can promote a healthy gut microbiome and reduce the risk of gastrointestinal disorders and other chronic diseases.

Marketing Hype Surrounding Supplements

Marketing hype is prevalent in the health and wellness industry, often promising quick fixes and miraculous health benefits. Supplement companies frequently use persuasive language and flashy advertising to promote their products, making bold claims about their effectiveness without sufficient, or sometimes any, scientific evidence.

One common tactic is the use of celebrity endorsements or testimonials to lend credibility to the product. These endorsements may create a perception of legitimacy and trustworthiness, despite lacking scientific backing.

The rise of social media influencers and online influencers has amplified the reach of supplement marketing, with sponsored posts and affiliate marketing contributing to widespread claims that are often far out of proportion to reality.

Always Require Proof

It’s important to realize that supplements are not regulated in a way that requires them to have any proof of benefit. Supplement labels may feature terms like “natural,” “clinically proven,” or “doctor recommended”. Marketers can say anything they want as long as they technically don’t cross the line of claiming to “diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent” any disease.

Your best policy when listening to any advertising, influencers, or social media comments is to look skeptically at the evidence being presented. And that includes what you read on this site. While we don’t yet have PubMed references for every statement of benefit, we will. And if we can’t find adequate evidence in the peer-reviewed literature, it’s our policy to leave it off the site.

To Sum It Up

A food-first approach to nutrition is necessary if a person is going to achieve the variety of nutrients needed as a baseline for good health. Evidence-based supplements should be added based on your specific needs as determined by your food choices and health issues. Remember, no matter how much Supplement-Sciences.com talks about the benefits of specific supplements for certain health problems, we never want you to take a pill that doesn’t provide the greatest health benefit if there’s a better option through food.


Dietary supplements are not designed to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. This article aims to offer valuable insights into which nutritional supplements have undergone scientific study and shown promise in supporting specific health conditions. We break down the research, so you can work with your medical providers to make informed decisions about adding supplements to your health regimen. For personalized advice tailored to your needs, we recommend consulting with a registered dietitian in addition to your primary care provider.

Check with your physician when adding supplements. While supplements are generally safe for most people, do not add nutritional supplements without your physician’s specific approval if you are pregnant or nursing, are undergoing cancer treatment, have a history of organ transplant, liver or kidney disease, or take medications that interact with supplements.


Supplements on Online Marketplaces: Heavy Metals, Viagra, and Rice Flour Counterfeits

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Along with providing information on whether supplements might be right for you, this article also links to Fullscript where you can buy supplements online through Fullscript’s secure healthcare formulary and get free shipping and 20% off the retail price of professional-grade supplements.

The Supplement Sciences website was created to provide reliable sourcing for quality nutritional supplements. We are told to seek out quality brand supplements, but this is more challenging than it sounds. Even if objective company vetting information were available, who would have the time? This article discusses some of the incidents of counterfeit supplements on online platforms as well as in retail chains. We want you to know about a better source for ordering supplements: Fullscript.

Currently, people are relying on open online marketplaces that allow all brands with a business licence, be they good or bad. People buy from discount product lines with potentially hundreds of suppliers. With so much money changing hands, how could the supplement industry not attract a lot of bad players.

Through Supplement Sciences, you have access quality brands fully vetted by Fullscript, a secure professional-grade supplement formulary that only carries the top-quality brands. With Supplement Sciences, you’ll receive 20% off the products retail prices every time with free shipping on orders over $50. Fullscript provides assurance that what’s on the label is what is actually in the bottle. No more gambling with your health.

Why Do We Even Trust Supplements?

Many people mistakenly believe that the FDA polices the dietary supplement industry. The Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act of 1994 regulates the dietary supplement industry, but it is widely criticized as being inadequate to protect consumers. Unlike FDA’s regulation policies for drugs, dietary supplement regulation does not require the FDA to conduct product or safety testing. The FDA only takes action against a dietary supplement if it is found to be unsafe after it is on the market.

This begs the question: How do any of us really know that our herbal supplements aren’t just grass clippings? How do we know that the white powders aren’t rice flour? How can we trust that the supplements sourced from China don’t come from contaminated sources? After all, it’s hard to imagine an uneducated and unregulated herb grower in rural China would hesitate to spray pesticides. Producers could easily turn a blind eye to high lead when sourcing their mineral supplements. Chinese parents know better than to buy formula produced in China (knowing conditions continue that produced the Formula Scandal back in 2008. This incident, though it didn’t involve supplements, tells us something important about the profit motive, lack of regulation, and low safety standards outside of the US. You will often see the “Made in China” label in major discount retailers.

But even when a supplement says it’s “packaged” or “distributed by” a company in the United States, it doesn’t necessarily mean the product or its ingredients originated in the U.S. The raw materials or ingredients could have been sourced from anywhere. This creates “plausible deniability”. This means that if something turns out to be fake, the supplement company can just point a finger at the supplier and feign innocence. It allows them to shop for the lowest prices (even impossibly unrealistic low prices) and offer lower cost products than are possible with quality brands.

Personal Experience With Fake Supplements

There’s nothing like a few personal experiences to bring home the point that price shopping on an open product marketplace is not the way to go when it comes to supplements. Two instances have provided evidence to convince me to personally avoid online product marketplaces and even most websites for dietary supplements.

The first experience was with a $49 bottle labeled NMN bought on the main online marketplace. It looked perfectly legitimate and there was no reason to question the lemon flavor. That is, until the Harvard researcher, David Sinclair casually commented about the fake NMN problem and mentioned that real NMN tastes like burnt popcorn. So the “NMN” lemon drops were fake-as were 65% of the NMN supplements advertised there–see below.

My second instance of wasting money on fake supplements didn’t involve an online marketplace, but a product purchased directly private company’s website. Many private lines of supplements offer a wide range of products at discount prices. After buying a 5 oz package of bland pure white powder labeled “Resveratrol with Vitamin E”, it came to my attention that resveratrol actually has a yellowish off-white color and will generally oxidize to a reddish-brown color. The pure white powder I purchased for $39.95 tasted exactly like rice flour and never oxidized even after many months.

These are just my own experiences. Let’s move on to other documented instances of fraud appearing in news stories.

Research Shows 13 Out of 30 Products Accurately Labeled

Another Study Shows 63%Misbranded and 24% Adulterated

A 2022 study looked at supplements of interest to us service members. Of the 41 products tested, twenty-six (63.4%) products were misbranded; 10 (24.4%) were adulterated, and six (14.6%) were both misbranded and adulterated. Risky ingredients appeared on 23 (56%) of all product labels.

NOW Brand Supplements Faked

Neutraceutical Insider reported on the April 2023 story involving a number of the NOW brand supplements being counterfeited.

NOW, recently conducted an investigation into counterfeit supplements being sold on an online marketplace. They discovered that a company operating under the name A2X1 had sold 11 different fake NOW supplements on one platform for approximately two weeks. These counterfeit supplements imitated the NOW brand as well as another well-known supplement brand, but had falsified packaging, labels, and contents. NOW was alerted to the issue by concerned consumers who had purchased suspicious NOW-branded products. Each counterfeit product contained small white capsules with odorless white powder.

To determine the contents of the capsules, NOW analyzed the white powders and found that they contained white rice flour. The company also discovered trace amounts of Sildenafil (Viagra) in some of the samples. NOW has reported this finding to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Fake: 65% of NMN Supplements Faked

ProHealth Longevity published this article, in which they discuss their (2020-2021) investigation into adulterated and counterfeit NMN products sold on one of the online marketplaces. They discovered that many of these products had fake Certificates of Authenticity and other documentation. Consumer Lab and other parties have now reported similar findings.

During their research, ProHealth Longevity found that more than half of the NMN products tested contained no NMN at all, while others had less than 80% purity. Some suppliers were selling low-cost vitamin B3 as NMN.

Consumer Lab tested the 21 NMN brands with the highest market share on the marketplace and found that only three of the brands contained their claimed amounts of NMN. Consumer Lab notes that many of the products that contained virtually no NMN had hundreds or thousands of positive reviews, raising questions about how those reviews were obtained.

A Long List of Counterfeits and Contamination

Here’s a general idea of past issues related to contaminated or counterfeit supplements on online retailers:

  • In 2023, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning letter to Amazon regarding tainted supplements purchased from their online store. Through laboratory analyses, the FDA confirmed that seven different supplements marketed towards supporting male energy contained the pharmaceutical ingredients tadalafil or sildenafil.
  • In 2020, a Consumer Reports article discussed FDA’s warning to consumers to avoid certain weight loss and sexual enhancement supplements sold on online marketplaces. The FDA tested 46 products and found that all contained undeclared pharmaceutical ingredients, including sildenafil (the active ingredient in Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra), as well as other substances not listed on the labels. Several of the products were labeled as “#1 Best Seller” or the “Choice” product. While both these online retailers have pledged to remove the products from their sites, this is the latest in a string of studies finding undisclosed drugs in dietary supplements.
  • In 2018, the FDA warned consumers about the presence of hidden and potentially harmful ingredients in some dietary supplements sold on online retailers. These products were promoted for weight loss, muscle building, and sexual enhancement but contained undeclared ingredients that could be harmful to consumers.
  • In 2019, there were reports of counterfeit Align Probiotic supplements being sold on one of the online retailers. The counterfeit products had different packaging and lacked the authentic lot codes and expiration dates. Procter & Gamble, the manufacturer of Align, worked with the retailer to remove the counterfeit listings and protect consumers.
  • In 2020, there were concerns about the quality and authenticity of some vitamin C supplements sold online, as the COVID-19 pandemic led to a surge in demand for immune-boosting products. Some customers reported receiving products with poor packaging, inconsistent quality, or questionable origins.
  • In 2019, a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) found that more than half of the dietary supplements sold on one of the online marketplaces contained unapproved and potentially dangerous ingredients. The study analyzed 1,000 popular supplements and found that many products contained undeclared pharmaceuticals or other compounds that could cause serious health problems.
  • In 2021, the U.S. Department of Justice indicted a New Jersey man for allegedly selling misbranded and adulterated dietary supplements on online retailers. The supplements were marketed as natural remedies for various ailments but contained prescription drugs and other unapproved ingredients.
  • In a 2022 study focused on immune supplements, only 13 out of a total of 30 products were evaluated had accurate labels based on the product analysis. [PMID: 35947382]
  • A number of herbal products have been reported to contain lead. A study in 2009 confirmed that women who had reported taking herbs in the previous month did show higher lead levels. [PMC2771230]

Mushroom Supplements: A Special Case for Caution

While adulteration and contamination with heavy metals and allergens are important, mushroom supplements are particularly concerning because of the potential for fatal misidentification of mushroom species. Whole Foods Magazine published an article in which counterfeits of four of the Host Defense brand of mushroom supplements were being sold on the marketplace.

Open Online Marketplaces May Be Impossible To Secure

Even if these businesses want to clean up their marketplaces, there’s some doubt that such efforts can be effective. A couple of quotes from an article in Natural Products Insider should make clear just how difficult and costly it would be to police a large platform.

“THERE’S OVER 10,000 BRANDS ON [THE MARKETPLACE] JUST IN THIS CATEGORY, AND WE’RE SEEING MANY, MANY HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF PRODUCTS”

— Daniel Harari, general manager of e-commerce solutions for SPINS, and co-founder of ClearCut Analytics

“We think of the retailers as gatekeepers, and we’ve had concerns that [they don’t] hold those same standards. When we can assume that [one online retailer]is 70% of e-commerce and, by 2024, e-commerce will be a quarter of all supplement sales, what are our concerns within the industry when the retailers and buyers aren’t acting as those gatekeepers?”

Claire Morton-Reynolds, senior analyst for the Nutrition Business Journal

Walmart, Walgreens, Target and GNC Also Found Selling Fakes

A few years back, New York Attorney General’s office investigated herbal supplements sold on online marketplaces and other retailers and found that many products did not contain the advertised herbs or contained other unlabeled ingredients. The investigation led to a settlement with four major retailers to improve quality control and labeling practices.

In the 2015 story, the Attorney General of New York, Eric T. Schneiderman, warned four major retailers, GNC, Target, Walmart, and Walgreens. Warning letters said the retailers sold store-brand herbal supplement products in New York that did not contain the labeled substance, or that had drugs or ingredients not listed on the labels. The retailers were asked to stop selling certain popular products, including Echinacea, Ginseng, and St. John’s Wort. Schneiderman also requested that the companies provide detailed information about their herbal supplements’ production, processing, and testing, as well as explain quality control measures in place.

The AG’s office investigation was stunning. Only 21% of the test results from store-brand herbal supplements verified DNA from the plants listed on the products’ labels, while 79% either came up empty or verified contamination with other plant material. Walmart had the poorest showing for DNA matching products listed on the label, with only 4% of the Walmart products tested showing DNA from the plants listed on the products’ labels.

Schneiderman said, “This investigation confirms long-standing questions about the herbal supplement industry. Mislabeling, contamination, and false advertising are illegal and pose unacceptable risks families, especially those with allergies to hidden ingredients.

A Better Way to Buy Supplements Online

The Fullscript online professional grade formulary is a better option for online supplements for several reasons. First, Fullscript guarantees the freshness of their products, ensuring that supplements are far from their expiration dates when they reach the consumer. Additionally, Fullscript has a secure supply chain, meaning that products are stored, packaged, and shipped in a controlled environment to prevent degradation or contamination.

Fullscript also offers professional-grade brands that are not available on other platforms, providing a wider range of high-quality options for healthcare professionals and their patients. While retail prices may be slightly higher than those on open online marketplaces, the 20% discount offered through the Supplement-Sciences.com website are highly competitive. The security of knowing that you are getting what is listed on the label makes it worth the investment. No heavy metals, no unlisted drugs, no rice flour counterfeits.

Best Buy Online:

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Order supplements through my Fullscript store.

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Antibiotics: Essential Insights on Drug-Nutrient Interactions

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Along with providing information on whether supplements for antibiotic related drug-nutrient interactions, this article also links to Fullscript where you can buy supplements through Fullscript’s secure healthcare formulary and get free shipping and 20% off the retail price of professional-grade supplements.

When you’re prescribed antibiotics to fight off an infection, you’re likely focused on getting better as quickly as possible. However, what many don’t realize is that these powerful medications can interact with various nutrients in your diet, affecting both the effectiveness of the drug and your nutritional health. From the calcium in your morning yogurt to the iron in your spinach salad, certain food components and supplements can influence how well your antibiotics work. This article covers the essential drug-nutrient interactions involving antibiotics, offering insights on how to navigate your diet and supplement intake to support your recovery. Understanding these interactions ensures you get the full benefit of your treatment while maintaining optimal nutritional balance.

Antibiotic Drug-Nutrient Interactions

Antibiotics always damage the microbiome to some extent. So, they can interact with various nutrients, affecting their absorption, metabolism, and utilization in the body. Here are some notable drug-nutrient interactions involving antibiotics:

  • Calcium and Iron in Foods Bind Antibiotics: Take antibiotics separately.
    • Calcium: Antibiotics such as tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones can bind to calcium in foods or supplements, reducing the antibiotic’s absorption and effectiveness. Take these antibiotics a few hours before or after consuming calcium-rich foods or supplements.
    • Iron: Similar to calcium, iron can also interfere with the absorption of tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. Taking iron supplements or eating iron-rich foods separately from these antibiotics can help minimize the interaction.
  • Mineral Supplements Bind Antibiotics: Take them separately.
    • Magnesium: Magnesium supplements can reduce the absorption of certain antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines, potentially decreasing their effectiveness. It’s advised to space out the consumption of magnesium supplements and these antibiotics.
    • Zinc: Zinc can interact with tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in a manner similar to calcium and iron, by binding with the antibiotic and reducing its absorption and effectiveness.
  • Vitamin K: Broad-spectrum antibiotics can disrupt the gut microbiota, which can interfere with vitamin K synthesis in the gut. This may affect blood clotting and bone health, especially in individuals with limited dietary vitamin K intake.
  • B Vitamins: Certain antibiotics can affect the metabolism or absorption of B vitamins, including B12, folate, and biotin, since some of these vitamins are produced by gut bacteria which can be depleted by antibiotics.
  • Probiotics: Take probiotics separately from antibiotics to assure the probiotics are not destroyed.

When taking antibiotics, it’s important to be aware of these potential interactions and manage your diet and supplement intake accordingly. Always consult with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian for personalized advice, especially if you are on a long-term antibiotic treatment.

Supplements For Antibiotic Users

  • Probiotics: Antibiotics cause diarrhea by killing healthy bacteria in the digestive tract.  To reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea, consider taking a probiotic 2 or more times per day *between* doses of antibiotic. Probiotics are important for maintaining gut health. Some antibiotics can significantly reduce beneficial gut bacteria. Supplementing with probiotics during and after antibiotic treatment can help restore healthy gut flora.
  • Multivitamin: Antibiotics can deplete several B vitamins, and other nutrients. It is important to avoid taking any supplements at the same time as antibiotics.

When you purchase linked products presented on this page, Supplement Sciences, LLC receives affiliate fees so that our dietitians can continue to create great content.

Thank you for your support!

Order Supplements to Avoid Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea

Avoiding antibiotic-associated diarrhea involves strategies to maintain a healthy balance of gut bacteria, which can be disrupted by antibiotic treatment. One effective approach is the use of probiotics—beneficial bacteria that can help restore the gut microbiome. Studies suggest that consuming probiotics during and after antibiotic treatment can reduce the risk of diarrhea by replenishing good bacteria and suppressing the growth of harmful bacteria.

Foods rich in probiotics, such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, and other fermented foods, can be beneficial. Probiotic supplements, particularly those containing strains like Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are also helpful. Additionally, maintaining a balanced diet with plenty of fiber can support a healthy gut environment, further preventing diarrhea.

Why Professionals Choose the Fullscript Formulary

Your health is on the line. Health professionals know that many other online and retail options set a very low bar for quality–sometimes amazingly low. The Fullscript formulary is the most secure online source for the highest quality brands securely sourced to assure freshness and purity. Here’s what makes Fullscript the best:

  • Meticulous vetting of brand quality. Health professionals trust Fullscript to continuously monitor the quality of each item on the platform. Other retailers operate with profit as their highest or only motive when choosing brands. Fullscript cares only about quality and reliability. Unlike discount stores, large online marketplaces, and other retailers you won’t find ingredients sourced from China or other questionable locations or companies.
  • Always 20% Discount off the manufacturer’s retail price. When you follow any link from Supplement-Sciences.com, you will automatically get 20% off the retail price.
  • Free shipping over $50.
  • Freshness. Fullscript prioritizes freshness over bulk buying even if it means an increased risk of briefly being out of stock.
  • Top quality phone and online support. When you call, knowledgeable humans at Fullscript answer your questions.
  • How It Works:
    • Easy Sign-up & No Spam Email: Click the “View Product” button below to be taken to Fullscript’s login page where you can quickly create your secure account with just your name, email, and phone number. Then you will be taken directly to the product page.
    • Wide variety of supplement options: Once you sign in to your account, you are not limited to the products listed below. You will see similar items listed at the bottom of each product page on Fullscript.
    • Search For What You Want: Once inside Fullscript, you can search for the exact brands and products you want from their wide selection of quality brands.

Food First!

Although this article discusses supplements in detail, don’t forget that we are absolutely committed to the “Food First” approach to nutrition. When it comes to your health, the totality of your eating habits far surpasses the impact of individual nutrients or any single supplement you consume. Even though this article doesn’t delve into the broader picture of your overall diet, it’s crucial to keep this element at the forefront of our minds. Your food needs to provide all the vitamins, minerals, fiber, and phytochemicals to nourish your body systems down to the cellular level.

Food choices, rather than supplements, are the most critical factors for a healthy gut microbiome. These trillions of tiny inhabitants in your gut affect your brain waves; they orchestrate your immune system. They possess the power to create molecules that can switch genes on or off and are even capable of synthesizing neurotransmitters. Opting for organic foods and steering clear of plastic packaging (including those labeled BPA-free) is a smart move to limit toxin exposure. The sum of all these parts leads to a powerful conclusion: the ultimate key to your health lies in the quality and balance of the food you consume. Supplements are secondary.

To Sum It Up

Understanding antibiotic and nutrient interactions is key to minimizing side effects and protecting gut health. Probiotics play a crucial role in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea, helping maintain a balanced gut. Adding probiotics through foods or supplements can make antibiotic treatment easier on your digestive system. Always seek advice from healthcare professionals to tailor this approach to your health needs, ensuring a smooth and effective recovery.


This Article is Not a Substitute for Medical Advice

Dietary supplements are not designed to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. The Supplement Sciences website seeks to provide comprehensive access to the most relevant supplement information along with convenient online ordering. We do not provide medical advice and cannot guarantee that every product suggested is completely without risk. Since each person is unique in their health history and medication use, it is important to discuss supplements with your personal physician. Specifically, pregnant women and individuals being treated for cancer or liver or kidney problems must consult their physician about every nutritional supplement they plan to take. People taking medications for the treatment of HIV or with a history of organ transplant must not take supplements without consulting with their physician.


Echinacea Unveiled: Boosting Immunity and Fighting Infections Naturally

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Along with providing information on whether Echinacea supplements might be right for you, this article also links to Fullscript where you can buy Echinacea supplements online through Fullscript’s secure healthcare formulary and get free shipping and 20% off the retail price of professional-grade supplements.

Echinacea purpurea, a native North American plant, has long been a go-to remedy in traditional medicine. People often turn to its supplements to strengthen their immune system, especially during cold and flu season. This article dives into the science behind Echinacea purpurea’s health benefits, shedding light on how it works and why it has gained so much attention in natural wellness circles.

What Is Echinacea?

Echinacea is a flowering plant that belongs to the daisy family. Native to North America, it comes in different species, with Echinacea purpurea being the most commonly used for health supplements. The plant’s leaves, flowers, and roots find use in various forms, including capsules, teas, and tinctures. Known for its vibrant purple petals and central cone, Echinacea has been a staple in traditional medicine for centuries. Today, it remains a popular choice for people looking to enhance their wellness, particularly their immune health.

What Are the Benefits of Echinacea?

  • Boosts Immune System: Echinacea purpurea is widely recognized for its immune-enhancing effects. It stimulates the production and activity of white blood cells, especially T-cells and macrophages, which are crucial in the body’s defense against pathogens. This herb also stimulates the production of cytokines, proteins that help regulate immune responses.
    • Reduces Cold Symptoms: Studies have shown that taking Echinacea purpurea at the onset of cold symptoms can reduce the duration and severity of the illness. It may help alleviate common symptoms like a sore throat, cough, and fever. However, it is most effective when used at the first sign of a cold.
    • Antimicrobial Activity: Echinacea purpurea exhibits antimicrobial properties, making it potentially effective against a variety of bacteria and viruses. This supports the body’s ability to resist and fight infections. The herb’s ability to stimulate the immune system also plays a role in its antimicrobial efficacy.
  • Anti-Inflammatory Properties: The active compounds in Echinacea purpurea, such as polysaccharides and glycoproteins, have anti-inflammatory effects. These can help in reducing inflammation in various conditions, including respiratory issues and skin irritation. Its anti-inflammatory action also contributes to its immune-boosting properties.
  • Antioxidant Effects: Echinacea purpurea is rich in antioxidants, which protect the body from oxidative stress caused by free radicals. These antioxidants, like flavonoids, cichoric acid, and rosmarinic acid, contribute to cell protection and overall health. This antioxidant capacity can also help in preventing chronic diseases.
  • Skin Health: Applied topically, Echinacea purpurea can improve skin health. It promotes hydration, reduces the appearance of wrinkles, and may aid in faster wound healing due to its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Its antioxidants also protect skin cells from damage and premature aging.
    • Acne: Echinacea containing preparations have been found to kill Propionibacterium acnes and reduce inflammation. [PMID: 20830697]
  • Mental Health Support: Recent research suggests that Echinacea purpurea might have anxiolytic properties, helping to reduce anxiety and improve mood. This is attributed to certain compounds in the herb that may influence brain chemistry related to mood regulation. However, more research is needed to fully understand its effects on mental health. [PMID: 34217960]

Is Echinacea Safe?

When it comes to safety, Echinacea has a good track record. Most people can take it without experiencing any serious side effects. Commonly reported mild side effects include temporary digestive upset or skin rashes, but these tend to go away on their own. It’s also generally considered safe to use Echinacea for short periods, making it a convenient option for those looking to enhance their wellness. However, it’s always best to consult a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement, especially if you’re pregnant, nursing, or taking other medications.

Medication Interactions with Echinacea

  • Immunosuppressants: Echinacea purpurea can stimulate the immune system, potentially counteracting the effects of medications used to prevent organ transplant rejection or treat autoimmune diseases.
  • Corticosteroids: Echinacea’s immune-boosting properties might diminish the effectiveness of these drugs, which are used to reduce inflammation.
  • Caffeine and Certain Drugs Metabolized by the Liver: Echinacea may slow the breakdown of caffeine and other drugs processed by the liver, leading to increased effects or side effects.
  • Antifungal Medications: The interaction with Echinacea could alter how the body processes these medications, potentially affecting their efficacy.
  • Chemotherapy Drugs: Echinacea can stimulate the immune system, possibly interfering with the intended immunosuppressive effect of certain chemotherapy drugs.
  • Antiviral Medications: The immune-stimulating effects of Echinacea could potentially interfere with antiviral drugs, especially those used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS.
  • Antibiotics: Echinacea may alter the effectiveness of antibiotics by influencing the immune system’s response, necessitating further research for a clearer understanding.

Supplement Interactions with Echinacea

  • Other Immune-Boosting Supplements (like Astragalus or Elderberry): Combining Echinacea purpurea with other supplements known to boost the immune system could lead to an overstimulation of the immune response. This might increase the risk of side effects such as inflammation or autoimmune reactions.
  • Caffeine-containing Supplements: Echinacea can slow the breakdown of caffeine in the body. Using it alongside supplements that contain caffeine might lead to increased caffeine effects and side effects.
  • Bitter Orange (Synephrine): Since Echinacea may affect liver metabolism, combining it with bitter orange, which also affects liver metabolism, could enhance or prolong the effects and side effects of synephrine in bitter orange.
  • St. John’s Wort: Echinacea could interact with St. John’s Wort, potentially altering the way the body processes certain compounds. This could lead to unexpected effects or reduced efficacy of either supplement.
  • Sedative Herbs (like Valerian, Kava, and others): When combined with Echinacea, these herbs might have altered effects, particularly if Echinacea affects the liver enzymes that break down these sedative compounds.
  • Ginkgo Biloba: Echinacea might interfere with the way the body processes Ginkgo biloba, affecting its blood-thinning properties and potentially leading to increased bleeding risk.
  • Goldenseal: Both Goldenseal and Echinacea are often used for immune support. However, combining them might lead to excessive immune stimulation or other unexpected interactions due to their combined impact on liver metabolism.

When you purchase linked products presented on this page, Supplement Sciences, LLC receives affiliate fees so that our dietitians can continue to create great content.

Thank you for your support!

Why Professionals Choose the Fullscript Formulary

Your health is on the line. Health professionals know that many other online and retail options set a very low bar for quality–sometimes amazingly low. The Fullscript formulary is the most secure online source for the highest quality brands securely sourced to assure freshness and purity. Here’s what makes Fullscript the best:

  • Meticulous vetting of brand quality. Health professionals trust Fullscript to continuously monitor the quality of each item on the platform. Other retailers operate with profit as their highest or only motive when choosing brands. Fullscript cares only about quality and reliability. Unlike discount stores, large online marketplaces, and other retailers you won’t find ingredients sourced from China or other questionable locations or companies.
  • Always 20% Discount off the manufacturer’s retail price. When you follow any link from Supplement-Sciences.com, you will automatically get 20% off the retail price.
  • Free shipping over $50.
  • Freshness. Fullscript prioritizes freshness over bulk buying even if it means an increased risk of briefly being out of stock.
  • Top quality phone and online support. When you call, knowledgeable humans at Fullscript answer your questions.
  • How It Works:
    • Easy Sign-up & No Spam Email: Click the “View Product” button below to be taken to Fullscript’s login page where you can quickly create your secure account with just your name, email, and phone number. Then you will be taken directly to the product page.
    • Wide variety of supplement options: Once you sign in to your account, you are not limited to the products listed below. You will see similar items listed at the bottom of each product page on Fullscript.
    • Search For What You Want: Once inside Fullscript, you can search for the exact brands and products you want from their wide selection of quality brands.

Order Echinacea Supplements

Why Professionals Choose the Fullscript Formulary

Your health is on the line. Health professionals know that many other online and retail options set a very low bar for quality–sometimes amazingly low. The Fullscript formulary is the most secure online source for the highest quality brands securely sourced to assure freshness and purity. Here’s what makes Fullscript the best:

  • Meticulous vetting of brand quality. Health professionals trust Fullscript to continuously monitor the quality of each item on the platform. Other retailers operate with profit as their highest or only motive when choosing brands. Fullscript cares only about quality and reliability. Unlike discount stores, large online marketplaces, and other retailers you won’t find ingredients sourced from China or other questionable locations or companies.
  • Always 20% Discount off the manufacturer’s retail price. When you follow any link from Supplement-Sciences.com, you will automatically get 20% off the retail price.
  • Free shipping over $50.
  • Freshness. Fullscript prioritizes freshness over bulk buying even if it means an increased risk of briefly being out of stock.
  • Top quality phone and online support. When you call, knowledgeable humans at Fullscript answer your questions.
  • How It Works:
    • Easy Sign-up & No Spam Email: Click the “View Product” button below to be taken to Fullscript’s login page where you can quickly create your secure account with just your name, email, and phone number. Then you will be taken directly to the product page.
    • Wide variety of supplement options: Once you sign in to your account, you are not limited to the products listed below. You will see similar items listed at the bottom of each product page on Fullscript.
    • Search For What You Want: Once inside Fullscript, you can search for the exact brands and products you want from their wide selection of quality brands.

Echinacea Root 400mg by NOW Foods

  • Purpurea Root

Echinacea (purple coneflower) was once widely used by Native Americans and is now used by millions of consumers worldwide. This product utilizes the whole Echinacea root, which has all of its natural components in the amounts found in nature.

Natural color variation may occur in this product.
Take 2 capsules 1 to 4 times daily as needed. Continuous high level consumption of this product for more than 2 weeks of each month is not recommended.

Amount Per 2 Veg Capsules Serving
Echinacea Root … 800mg (Echinacea purpurea)

AnxioCalm by EuroMedica

AnxioCalm® is used to significantly relieve occasional anxiety and stress without daytime drowsiness.*

Suggested Use:
Adults: 1 or 2 tablets twice daily. May take at bedtime to support restful sleep.
Children (ages 4-12): 1 tablet twice daily. May increase as directed by your healthcare practitioner.

Amount Per 2 Tablets Serving
Narrow-leaved Coneflower … 40 mg
(Echinacea angustifolia) Root Extract (EP107™) standardized for a unique, proprietary alkamide profile [PMID: 34217960]


To Sum It Up

Echinacea purpurea supplements offer a range of health benefits. They are known for boosting the immune system and reducing cold symptoms, thanks to their ability to enhance white blood cell function. Their anti-inflammatory properties help in managing various conditions, while the antioxidants they contain protect cells from oxidative stress. Echinacea purpurea also supports skin health, potentially reducing wrinkles and aiding in wound healing. Additionally, its anxiolytic effects suggest a role in mental health support. Lastly, its antimicrobial activity contributes to its ability to resist infections.


This Article is Not a Substitute for Medical Advice

Dietary supplements are not designed to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. The Supplement Sciences website seeks to provide comprehensive access to the most relevant supplement information along with convenient online ordering. We do not provide medical advice and cannot guarantee that every product suggested is completely without risk. Since each person is unique in their health history and medication use, it is important to discuss supplements with your personal physician. Specifically, pregnant women and individuals being treated for cancer or liver or kidney problems must consult their physician about every nutritional supplement they plan to take. People taking medications for the treatment of HIV or with a history of organ transplant must not take supplements without consulting with their physician.


Low Fruit & Veggies? Supplements To Make Up For Some Of What’s Missing

Secure Ordering | Free Shipping | 20% Off Retail Prices

Along with providing information on whether certain supplements might be right for you, this article also links to Fullscript where you can buy supplements online through Fullscript’s secure healthcare formulary and get free shipping and 20% off the retail price of professional-grade supplements.

Supplements can never supply all the nutritional components provided by fruits and vegetables. Yet, in today’s fast-paced world, maintaining a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables can be a challenge for many. This shortfall in consuming vital produce leads to gaps in essential vitamins, minerals, and other phytonutrients that are crucial for our overall health and wellbeing.

When fruits and vegetables are missing, nutritional supplements can play a role in bridging this gap. They may offer a practical solution to complement the diet, ensuring that the body receives some of the important nutrients it might be missing from a limited intake of fruits and vegetables. This article delves into the nutrients provided by fruits and vegetables. We’ll also discuss the benefit of certain nutritional supplements for people who aren’t getting enough.

What Nutrients Are Missing When You Don’t Eat Enough Fruits And Vegetables?

When our diet lacks a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables, we miss out on a plethora of essential nutrients that these natural food sources abundantly provide. Fruits and vegetables are rich in vitamins, such as Vitamin C, known for its immune-boosting properties, and Vitamin A, crucial for maintaining healthy vision and skin. They are also prime sources of dietary fiber, which is essential for digestive health and can aid in maintaining a healthy weight.

Additionally, these plant foods are loaded with various antioxidants, like flavonoids and carotenoids, which combat oxidative stress and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Minerals such as potassium, found in bananas and leafy greens, are vital for heart health and maintaining proper fluid balance in the body. Fruits and vegetables also provide an array of phytonutrients, compounds that play a crucial role in preventing inflammation and supporting overall health.

While supplements can help fill some nutritional gaps, they can’t fully replicate the complex combination of nutrients and additional benefits provided by whole fruits and vegetables, such as fiber and natural hydration. Thus, incorporating a diverse range of fruits and vegetables into one’s diet is the most effective way to ensure a comprehensive intake of these essential nutrients.

Creative Ideas For Getting More Fruits And Vegetables

Getting more fruits and vegetables into your diet is the best way to meet not only essential nutrient needs, but can also be an enjoyable food experience. Fruits and vegetables are unparalleled in their ability to provide a wide array of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants in a natural, unprocessed form. To make the most of these nutritional powerhouses in a fun and tasty way, consider these creative ideas:

  • Smoothie Bowls: Start your day with a vibrant smoothie bowl. Blend your favorite fruits like bananas, berries, or mangoes with a bit of spinach or kale for a nutritious kick. Top it with nuts, seeds, and a drizzle of honey for extra flavor and texture.
  • Veggie-Packed Soups: Soups are a great way to consume a variety of vegetables. Try blending cooked vegetables into a smooth soup or add chunky veggies to broth-based soups. You can use carrots, squash, tomatoes, leafy greens, and more.
  • Fruit Infused Water: Enhance your water by adding slices of fruits like lemon, lime, orange, or cucumber. It’s a refreshing way to stay hydrated and get some extra nutrients.
  • Vegetable Noodles: Swap out traditional pasta with vegetable noodles made from zucchini, carrots, or sweet potatoes. Use a spiralizer or a vegetable peeler to create these healthy, low-carb alternatives.
  • Homemade Veggie Chips: Make your own vegetable chips by thinly slicing veggies like kale, beets, or sweet potatoes, seasoning them, and baking them until crisp.
  • Fruit Salsa: Create a sweet salsa with diced fruits such as pineapple, mango, and strawberries. Serve it with whole-grain tortilla chips or over grilled fish or chicken.
  • Grilled Vegetables: Grilling vegetables like bell peppers, asparagus, and eggplant brings out their natural sweetness. Drizzle them with olive oil, add some herbs, and grill to perfection.
  • Vegetable Stir-Fry: A quick and easy stir-fry with a variety of vegetables like broccoli, bell peppers, and snap peas can be a colorful and healthy addition to any meal.
  • Fruit Desserts: Satisfy your sweet tooth with fruit-based desserts. Baked apples, banana ice cream, or a berry parfait with yogurt can be delicious and healthy alternatives to traditional desserts.
  • Hidden Veggies: For those particularly resistant to vegetables, try incorporating them into dishes undetected. Add pureed vegetables into sauces, stews, or even baked goods.

Remember, the key to enjoying fruits and vegetables is variety – both in the types you eat and the ways you prepare them. With these creative ideas, you can easily and deliciously increase your intake of these vital food groups.

What Are The Health Effects If You Don’t Get Enough Fruits And Vegetables

The absence of sufficient fruits and vegetables in your diet can lead to several health issues, primarily due to the lack of essential nutrients that these foods provide:

  • Vitamin Deficiencies: Fruits and vegetables are rich sources of vitamins like Vitamin C, A, and K, and a lack of these can lead to scurvy (from Vitamin C deficiency), impaired vision and immune function (from Vitamin A deficiency), and problems with blood clotting and bone health (from Vitamin K deficiency).
  • Magnesium Deficiency: a diet that lacks fruits and vegetables is often deficient in magnesium, which plays vital roles in the body, including sleep, mental health, supporting muscle and nerve function, bone health, and energy production. It’s also important for regulating blood pressure and supporting a healthy immune system. Symptoms of magnesium deficiency can include muscle cramps, fatigue, irritability, and an increased susceptibility to stress. Over time, chronic magnesium deficiency can contribute to more serious health issues, such as osteoporosis, heart disease, and metabolic disorders.
  • Digestive Problems: A low intake of fruits and vegetables can result in inadequate dietary fiber, which is essential for healthy digestion. This can lead to constipation, an increased risk of gastrointestinal disorders, and may impact colon health.
  • Increased Risk of Chronic Diseases: Fruits and vegetables contain antioxidants and phytochemicals that help reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. Their absence can increase the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer.
  • Weakened Immune System: The nutrients in fruits and vegetables, such as Vitamin C and various phytonutrients, are crucial for a strong immune system. A diet lacking in these can lead to a weakened immune response.
  • Weight Management Issues: Fruits and vegetables have low energy density and are filling, which helps in weight management. Without them, you might consume more high-calorie foods, leading to weight gain and associated health issues.
  • Mental Health Impact: Emerging research suggests a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can have a positive impact on mental health. Fiber and phytochemicals are critical to the microbiome. Lack of these nutrients may contribute to mood disorders like depression and anxiety.
  • Skin and Hair Health: Vitamins and antioxidants in fruits and vegetables contribute to healthy skin and hair. A deficiency can lead to problems like dry skin, wrinkles, and hair loss.

To prevent these health issues, it’s important to consume a variety of fruits and vegetables daily, ensuring a broad intake of essential nutrients for overall health and well-being.

If your diet lacks sufficient fruits and vegetables, certain nutritional supplements can help fill the nutritional gaps. Of course, it’s important to remember that supplements are intended to complement the diet, not replace whole foods. Here are some commonly recommended supplements:

  • Multivitamin: These supplements provide a range of essential vitamins and minerals, mimicking the diverse nutrient profile found in a varied diet of fruits and vegetables. They typically include vitamins A, C, D, E, and K, along with a range of B vitamins, and essential minerals like calcium, magnesium, and zinc. They’re a good safety net for covering basic nutritional needs.
    • Vitamin C: Known for its immune-boosting properties, Vitamin C also plays a role in collagen synthesis, aiding in skin health and wound healing. It’s a powerful antioxidant, combating free radical damage. Supplements can be especially important during times of illness or stress when the body’s need for Vitamin C increases.
    • Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene: Essential for good vision, immune function, and skin health. Beta-carotene, a precursor to Vitamin A, is an antioxidant. Supplements should be taken judiciously, as excessive intake, particularly of Vitamin A, can be harmful.
  • Fiber Supplements: They can help maintain bowel health, lower cholesterol levels, and assist in weight management. Fiber supplements can be particularly beneficial for those who struggle to consume enough fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Antioxidant Supplements: Including resveratrol, flavonoids such as in Green Tea, and Vitamin E, these supplements can help reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in the body. They are important for preventing cellular damage and supporting overall health.
  • Magnesium and Potassium: Magnesium is vital for muscle and nerve function, bone health, and energy production. Potassium is crucial for heart health, muscle function, and maintaining a healthy blood pressure. Supplements can help meet the needs that fruits and vegetables typically provide.
  • Probiotics: Essential for maintaining a healthy gut microbiome, probiotics can aid digestion and support the immune system. They are especially important for individuals whose diets lack in fiber and fermented foods.

When you purchase linked products presented on this page, Supplement Sciences, LLC receives affiliate fees so that our dietitians can continue to create great content.

Thank you for your support!

Order Supplements To Make Up for Low Fruit And Vegetable Intake

Why Professionals Choose the Fullscript Formulary

Your health is on the line. Health professionals know that many other online and retail options set a very low bar for quality–sometimes amazingly low. The Fullscript formulary is the most secure online source for the highest quality brands securely sourced to assure freshness and purity. Here’s what makes Fullscript the best:

  • Meticulous vetting of brand quality. Health professionals trust Fullscript to continuously monitor the quality of each item on the platform. Other retailers operate with profit as their highest or only motive when choosing brands. Fullscript cares only about quality and reliability. Unlike discount stores, large online marketplaces, and other retailers you won’t find ingredients sourced from China or other questionable locations or companies.
  • Always 20% Discount off the manufacturer’s retail price. When you follow any link from Supplement-Sciences.com, you will automatically get 20% off the retail price.
  • Free shipping over $50.
  • Freshness. Fullscript prioritizes freshness over bulk buying even if it means an increased risk of briefly being out of stock.
  • Top quality phone and online support. When you call, knowledgeable humans at Fullscript answer your questions.
  • How It Works:
    • Easy Sign-up & No Spam Email: Click the “View Product” button below to be taken to Fullscript’s login page where you can quickly create your secure account with just your name, email, and phone number. Then you will be taken directly to the product page.
    • Wide variety of supplement options: Once you sign in to your account, you are not limited to the products listed below. You will see similar items listed at the bottom of each product page on Fullscript.
    • Search For What You Want: Once inside Fullscript, you can search for the exact brands and products you want from their wide selection of quality brands.

Supplement Safety Information

Multivitamin, fiber supplements, antioxidant supplements, magnesium, potassium, and probiotics are generally considered safe for most people when taken as recommended. Multivitamins provide essential nutrients that may be missing from the diet. Fiber supplements support digestive health and regularity. Antioxidant supplements offer protection against oxidative stress and cellular damage. Magnesium plays a crucial role in many bodily functions including muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and bone health. Potassium is vital for heart function, muscle contractions, and maintaining a healthy blood pressure. Probiotics promote a healthy balance of gut bacteria, supporting digestive and immune health. It is important for people to follow dosage instructions and consult healthcare professionals especially if they have underlying health conditions or are taking other medications.

Medication Interactions:

Multivitamin, fiber supplements, antioxidant supplements, magnesium, potassium, and probiotics are generally considered safe for most people when taken as recommended. Multivitamins provide essential nutrients that may be missing from the diet. Fiber supplements support digestive health and regularity. Antioxidant supplements offer protection against oxidative stress and cellular damage. Magnesium plays a crucial role in many bodily functions including muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and bone health. Potassium is vital for heart function, muscle contractions, and maintaining a healthy blood pressure. Probiotics promote a healthy balance of gut bacteria, supporting digestive and immune health. It is important for people to follow dosage instructions and consult healthcare professionals especially if they have underlying health conditions or are taking other medications.

Supplement Interactions:

  • Multivitamin: May reduce the absorption of calcium and magnesium if they contain high levels of zinc; can interact with iron supplements leading to increased risk of gastrointestinal upset.
  • Fiber Supplements: Can hinder the absorption of calcium, magnesium, and iron supplements when taken simultaneously; may alter the effectiveness of probiotics by impacting gut flora balance.
  • Antioxidant Supplements: High doses of vitamin E (an antioxidant) can interfere with the absorption of vitamin K; can interact with other antioxidants like beta-carotene and vitamin C leading to a potential imbalance.
  • Magnesium: Can decrease the absorption of calcium supplements if taken together; may interfere with the effectiveness of vitamin D supplements.
  • Potassium: High doses of potassium supplements can affect the absorption of magnesium supplements; can interact with calcium supplements leading to altered heart rhythm and muscle function.
  • Probiotics: May enhance the absorption of some minerals in multivitamins, like zinc and iron; can interact with fiber supplements leading to changes in gut flora and digestion.

Food First!

Although this article discusses supplements in detail, don’t forget that we are absolutely committed to the “Food First” approach to nutrition. When it comes to your health, the totality of your eating habits far surpasses the impact of individual nutrients or any single supplement you consume. Even though this article doesn’t delve into the broader picture of your overall diet, it’s crucial to keep this element at the forefront of our minds. Your food needs to provide all the vitamins, minerals, fiber, and phytochemicals to nourish your body systems down to the cellular level.

Food choices, rather than supplements, are the most critical factors for a healthy gut microbiome. These trillions of tiny inhabitants in your gut affect your brain waves; they orchestrate your immune system. They possess the power to create molecules that can switch genes on or off and are even capable of synthesizing neurotransmitters. Opting for organic foods and steering clear of plastic packaging (including those labeled BPA-free) is a smart move to limit toxin exposure. The sum of all these parts leads to a powerful conclusion: the ultimate key to your health lies in the quality and balance of the food you consume. Supplements are secondary.

What Lab Tests Might Reflect Low Fruit And Vegetable Intake?

  • Vitamin C Test: Fruits and vegetables are major sources of vitamin C. Low levels in a blood test can indicate inadequate intake.
  • Vitamin A Test: This vitamin is abundant in fruits and vegetables. Lower blood levels might suggest a deficiency in these foods.
  • Folate (Folic Acid) Test: Green leafy vegetables are rich in folate. Low folate levels in blood tests can be a sign of insufficient consumption.
  • Potassium Test: Many fruits and vegetables are high in potassium. Low serum potassium could reflect a diet lacking in these foods.
  • Fiber Markers: While direct fiber measurement in blood is not typical, signs of low fiber intake can be inferred from digestive health assessments and certain metabolic markers.
  • Antioxidant Levels: Reduced levels of certain antioxidants in the blood might suggest a diet low in fruits and vegetables.
  • Magnesium Test: Magnesium is found in green leafy vegetables. Low serum magnesium levels can indicate inadequate intake of these foods.

To Sum It Up


Incorporating multivitamins, fiber supplements, antioxidant supplements, magnesium, potassium, and probiotics can significantly enhance overall health, especially for those struggling to meet their daily fruits and vegetables intake. Multivitamins fill nutritional gaps, fiber supplements improve digestive health, antioxidants combat cellular damage, while magnesium and potassium support numerous bodily functions. Probiotics are crucial for gut health. These supplements, however, should complement, not replace, a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables. For personalized advice and to ensure these supplements suit your specific health needs, it is highly recommended to consult with a Registered Dietitian. They can provide tailored guidance to help you to optimize your health through both diet and appropriate supplementation.


This Article is Not a Substitute for Medical Advice

Dietary supplements are not designed to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. The Supplement Sciences website seeks to provide comprehensive access to the most relevant supplement information along with convenient online ordering. We do not provide medical advice and cannot guarantee that every product suggested is completely without risk. Since each person is unique in their health history and medication use, it is important to discuss supplements with your personal physician. Specifically, pregnant women and individuals being treated for cancer or liver or kidney problems must consult their physician about every nutritional supplement they plan to take. People taking medications for the treatment of HIV or with a history of organ transplant must not take supplements without consulting with their physician.


Anticonvulsants: Critical Drug-Nutrient Interactions

Anticonvulsant include medications like Dilantin®, Lyrica®, Mysoline®, Tegertol®, Trileptal®, or others.

Folic acid, Ginko Biloba, Niacin (B3), and St. John’s wort may interfere with the effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs. DO NOT TAKE GINKO BILOBA, ST. JOHN’S WORT, OR HIGH DOSE FOLIC ACID OR NIACIN SUPPLEMENTS WITHOUT YOUR PHYSICIAN’S APPROVAL.

Vitamin D: Dilantin, Phenobarbital, and Tegretol can increase the breakdown of vitamin D, leading to a decrease in calcium absorption. People taking these medications for 6 months or more should consider calcium and vitamin D supplements. [PMID: 17445763] Vitamin D dosages should be adjusted based on your blood level with many clinicians recommending an optimal Vitamin D level of 50-80 ng/ml. Vitamin D Labs (affiliate link) can be ordered in the NutriScape Lab Shop.

Vitamin B12: Dilantin, Phenobarbital, and Mysoline have been reported to reduce vitamin B12 absorption as well as vitamin B12 levels in the brain in some individuals. B12-related anemia and neuropsychiatric side effects have been associated with these drugs. For this reason, a B12 supplement is suggested. [PMID: 21246600]

Vitamin B12 and Folate Labs: A Vitamin B12 lab test measures the levels of folate and vitamin B12 in your body. Folate and vitamin B12 are important nutrients that help your body make red blood cells and keep your nervous system healthy. Low levels of these nutrients can lead to anemia, fatigue, and other health problems. The Vitamin B12 & Folate test from Access Medical Labs (affiliate link) is available through the NutriScape Lab Shop.

When you purchase linked products presented on this page, Supplement Sciences, LLC receives affiliate fees so that our dietitians can continue to create great content.

Thank you for your support!

Order Supplements For Anticonvulsant Users

Why Professionals Choose the Fullscript Formulary

Your health is on the line. Health professionals know that many other online and retail options set a very low bar for quality–sometimes amazingly low. The Fullscript formulary is the most secure online source for the highest quality brands securely sourced to assure freshness and purity. Here’s what makes Fullscript the best:

  • Meticulous vetting of brand quality. Health professionals trust Fullscript to continuously monitor the quality of each item on the platform. Other retailers operate with profit as their highest or only motive when choosing brands. Fullscript cares only about quality and reliability. Unlike discount stores, large online marketplaces, and other retailers you won’t find ingredients sourced from China or other questionable locations or companies.
  • Always 20% Discount off the manufacturer’s retail price. When you follow any link from Supplement-Sciences.com, you will automatically get 20% off the retail price.
  • Free shipping over $50.
  • Freshness. Fullscript prioritizes freshness over bulk buying even if it means an increased risk of briefly being out of stock.
  • Top quality phone and online support. When you call, knowledgeable humans at Fullscript answer your questions.
  • How It Works:
    • Easy Sign-up & No Spam Email: Click the “View Product” button below to be taken to Fullscript’s login page where you can quickly create your secure account with just your name, email, and phone number. Then you will be taken directly to the product page.
    • Wide variety of supplement options: Once you sign in to your account, you are not limited to the products listed below. You will see similar items listed at the bottom of each product page on Fullscript.
    • Search For What You Want: Once inside Fullscript, you can search for the exact brands and products you want from their wide selection of quality brands.

This Article is Not a Substitute for Medical Advice

Dietary supplements are not designed to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. The Supplement Sciences website seeks to provide comprehensive access to the most relevant supplement information along with convenient online ordering. We do not provide medical advice and cannot guarantee that every product suggested is completely without risk. Since each person is unique in their health history and medication use, it is important to discuss supplements with your personal physician. Specifically, pregnant women and individuals being treated for cancer or liver or kidney problems must consult their physician about every nutritional supplement they plan to take. People taking medications for the treatment of HIV or with a history of organ transplant must not take supplements without consulting with their physician.


Calcium Channel Blockers: Drug-Nutrient Interactions To Know

Calcium channel blockers, also known as calcium antagonists, are a class of medications widely used to manage various cardiovascular conditions, including high blood pressure, chest pain (angina), and certain heart rhythm disorders. Here’s a list of some calcium channel blockers available in the United States:

  • Amlodipine (Brand name: Norvasc)
  • Diltiazem (Brand names: Cardizem, Cartia XT, Dilt-XR)
  • Nifedipine (Brand names: Adalat CC, Procardia XL)
  • Verapamil (Brand names: Calan, Verelan)
  • Felodipine (Brand name: Plendil)
  • Isradipine (Brand name: DynaCirc)
  • Nicardipine (Brand names: Cardene, Cardene SR)
  • Nisoldipine (Brand name: Sular)

These medications work by inhibiting the entry of calcium into the muscle cells of the heart and blood vessels. This action relaxes the blood vessels, reducing blood pressure and decreasing the heart’s workload, which can help alleviate chest pain. Different calcium channel blockers may target specific types of calcium channels or have varying effects on the heart and vasculature, making some more suited for certain conditions than others.

Drug-Nutrient Interactions:

  • Calcium Supplements: People taking Calcium Channel Blockers such as Amlodipine, Diltiazem, Nifedipine, Verapamil, or others should avoid calcium supplements because they interfere with the blood pressure lowering activity of these drugs.
  • Vitamin D: When using verapamil for blood pressure, it’s vital to monitor levels while optimizing vitamin D under medical guidance. Vitamin D affects calcium absorption, potentially impacting verapamil’s effectiveness. Balanced vitamin D levels and regular blood pressure checks can help manage this interaction effectively.
  • Melatonin: Melatonin may impair the effectiveness of some calcium channel blockers. Monitor for changes in effectiveness and adjust doses as necessary and/or avoid use of melatonin with Calcium Channel Blockers. 
  • CoQ10 and Fish Oil: These can reduce blood pressure. If you are taking blood pressure medicines, be careful to monitor blood pressure when adding CoQ10 or Fish Oil.
  • GarlicGinkgo Biloba & St. John’s Wort: These have the potential to affect the metabolism or clearance of blood pressure medicines.

To Sum It Up

Calcium channel blockers play a vital role in the management of various cardiovascular diseases by helping to relax blood vessels and reduce heart strain. However, it’s important to be aware of potential drug-nutrient interactions that can affect their effectiveness. Supplements such as calcium and certain natural compounds like melatonin, CoQ10, fish oil, garlic, ginkgo biloba, and St. John’s Wort can interact with these medications, requiring careful monitoring and consultation with healthcare providers.

Understanding these interactions can help optimize the blood pressure treatment regimen, maintaining the balance between medication effectiveness and overall health. As with any medication, achieving the best outcomes involves a comprehensive approach that considers food choices, supplements, and lifestyle factors alongside pharmaceutical treatments, under the guidance of professional medical advice.

Sobriety: From Anecdotes of AA Founder Bill W. To Modern Day NAD+ Therapy

Secure Ordering | Free Shipping | 20% Off Retail Prices

Along with providing information on whether nicotinamide, niacin, or NAD+ precursor supplements might be right for you, this article also links to Fullscript where you can buy NAD boosting supplements online through Fullscript’s secure healthcare formulary and get free shipping and 20% off the retail price of professional-grade supplements.

The general policy of the Supplement Sciences site is to avoid discussions of supplement therapies that are not well documented in the peer-reviewed literature. However, this article is an exception to the rule, in that it will discuss anecdotes and speculation that NAD+ precursors such as niacin, NMN, or NR may be helpful in alcohol recovery. We will show how this line of reasoning might be supported by research supporting the use of high-dose IV administration of NAD+. While the expense and lack of availability may prevent many from being able to access this therapy, NAD+ precursors may provide benefit. Bill W. believed strongly that high-dose niacin helped friends recover from alcohol addiction. Read more of this fascinating history.

Bill W.

Bill Wilson, the founder of Alcoholics Anonymous worked hard to get 3000 mg high-dose niacin or nicotinamide adopted as a part of AA. This was blocked by physicians who believed at that time in the 1960s that there was the potential for health risks.

Mixed messages still exist on the safety of niacin. Niacin does, in fact, have a tolerable upper limit set at 28-41 mg/day, presumably based on flushing reactions. Niacin’s safety and its potential for liver injury is also discussed in NIH literature [NBK548176], which states, “The recommended dosage for hyperlipidemia is 1 to 6 grams daily, starting at low doses (100 mg three times daily) and increasing at weekly intervals based upon tolerance and effect.” Meanwhile, Canadian psychiatrist, Abram Hoffer, studied niacin doses of 3000 mg on many, many of his own patients over the course of decades in his work with people who had schizophrenia.

“Since Elvehjem et al. reported a cure for canine pellagra dogs using nicotinic acid amide (known as nicotinamide) in 1938 [1], nicotinamide (NAM) at doses far above those required as a vitamin (e.g., 500–3000 mg) has been applied to various diseases and conditions.”

[PMC7277745]

Bill W. and His Fight To Add Niacin to Alcoholics Anonymous

In the summer of 1935, a movement was started when Bill Wilson, known as Bill W., and Dr. Bob started the first Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) group. Over the years, this support group would prove to be a lifeline for countless people grappling with alcoholism.

However, despite the success of AA in helping Bill W. address his alcoholism, it had little effect on his persistent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, it wasn’t a universally effective solution for all. In search of answers, Bill W. attended a parapsychology conference in New York City in 1960, where he was introduced to niacin researcher Abram Hoffer by the renowned British writer, Aldous Huxley.

Hoffer told Wilson about an innovative treatment for alcoholism and schizophrenia – niacin therapy. Using Vitamin B3, or niacin, they had achieved promising results. Wilson decided to try it himself, beginning a daily intake of 3 grams of niacin. Within just two weeks, his lifelong battle with depression and anxiety had significantly eased. Wilson was thrilled with this simple and effective solution and recommended vitamin therapy to his AA friends and acquaintances in the celebrity world. The results, in his eyes, were striking.

Wilson approached the physicians of AA, who were also members due to their own struggles with alcoholism. But, the International Organization of AA was less than receptive, saying that Wilson, without a medical license, should not be promoting any form of vitamin treatment.

Wilson devoted the final eleven years of his life to championing niacin therapy as a supplementary treatment for alcoholics in AA groups. Despite producing three informative booklets [*] for AA physicians, his efforts largely went unheeded. When asked about his legacy before his passing, Bill Wilson said he would like to be remembered for his promotion of niacin therapy, even more so than his founding of Alcoholics Anonymous. His statement emphasizes his belief in the transformative potential of this seemingly simple vitamin therapy.

Research Lacking Despite Anecdotes

Although Bill W. and many others believed strongly in the mood improvements that were possible with niacin, there does not appear to be any published research on the use of high-dose niacin for alcohol or addiction recovery. However, there is research to support the use of intravenous NAD+ therapy.

Relating Niacinamide, NAD+ Precursors, and NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is found in all living cells and plays a critical role in energy production as well as genetic repair processes. NAD levels decline as people age and this decrease in NAD is associated with age-related physiological changes. The image below shows how niacin in the form of nicotinamide (NAM) relates to NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide) and NR (nicotinamide riboside). All of these NAD+ precursors are available as dietary supplements. NAD+ is only available as an intravenous therapy.

Intravenous NAD+ Therapy For Addiction

In recent years, IV NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) therapy has gained attention as a potential treatment for addiction. This therapy involves administering NAD intravenously, and it is based on the premise that NAD plays a crucial role in cellular energy production and DNA repair. Research suggests that addiction may deplete NAD levels in the body, contributing to withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

Impaired energy metabolism has been reported in the brains of subjects addicted to substances. IV NAD therapy aims to replenish these depleted NAD levels, potentially reducing the severity of withdrawal symptoms and cravings. While the exact mechanisms are still being studied, it is proposed that NAD therapy may support the restoration of damaged neurotransmitter pathways and aid in the recovery process. Although promising, further research will be needed to fully understand the effectiveness and long-term outcomes of IV NAD therapy for addiction treatment. People considering this therapy need to consult with healthcare professionals and addiction specialists to determine its suitability for their specific needs. [PMC7278809]

NAD-dependent enzymes can influence major signalling processes associated with the neurobiology of addiction. These studies implicate raising intracellular NAD+ levels as a potential target for managing and treating addictive behaviour and reducing cravings and withdrawal symptoms in patients with food addiction and/or substance abuse. 

Sobriety and Satiety: Is NAD+ the Answer? [PMC7278809]

Dietary Supplement Options For Raising NAD+

While it hasn’t been studied, it could be theorized that any of the precursors that raise NAD+ levels might be helpful for alcohol or addiction recovery in a similar way to IV NAD+ therapy. The NAD+ pathway in the image below shows clearly how Niacin/nicotinamide, NMN, and NR relate to NAD+. To focus in on a small part of the pathway from the above image, it can be seen that there are three readily available supplement options for raising NAD+ levels:

  • High dose niacin/nicotinamide supplement
  • Nicotinamide Riboside (NR)
  • Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN)

Are NMN, NR, and Niacin Safe?

Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), nicotinamide riboside (NR), and niacin are generally considered safe for most people when taken in appropriate doses. These compounds are forms of vitamin B3 and play vital roles in cellular processes, including energy metabolism and DNA repair. Studies have shown that at recommended doses, they are well-tolerated with minimal side effects. Niacin, a well-known B3 vitamin, has a long history of use with a well-established safety profile. Similarly, NR and NMN, newer to the market, have also shown a good safety record in early research. It’s important to note that while these supplements are safe for most, they may interact with certain medications or pre-existing health conditions.

Medication Interactions with NAD precursors

For NMN and NR, interactions are less well-defined due to their relatively recent emergence and lesser extent of research and the field of supplement interaction with medications is evolving, and it’s essential for individuals to consult healthcare providers before starting any new supplement, especially if they are on existing medication regimens. However, there are some general considerations:

  • Cholesterol-lowering Drugs: Niacin can interact with statins, potentially increasing the risk of muscle problems. It can also affect the efficacy of cholesterol-lowering medications like bile acid sequestrants.
  • Diabetes Medications: Niacin can affect blood sugar levels, which might necessitate adjustments in diabetes medications.
  • Blood Pressure Medications: Niacin may potentiate the effects of drugs that lower blood pressure, leading to an increased risk of hypotension.
  • Anticoagulants or Antiplatelet Drugs: There’s a potential for increased bleeding risk when niacin is taken with anticoagulants like warfarin or antiplatelet drugs.
  • Alcohol and Liver Stressing Drugs: Since niacin can affect liver function, combining it with alcohol or other medications that stress the liver could increase the risk of liver damage.

Supplement Interactions with NAD Precursors

Potential supplement interactions involving Niacin, Nicotinamide Riboside (NR), and Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) primarily relate to their shared role in the NAD+ pathway and their individual effects on the body. Here are some considerations:

  • Vitamin B Complex: Niacin, NR, and NMN are all forms of Vitamin B3. Taking them alongside a Vitamin B complex could lead to an excessive intake of B3, which might increase the risk of side effects associated with high B3 intake, like flushing or gastrointestinal discomfort.
  • Other NAD+ Precursors: Taking NR or NMN alongside other NAD+ precursors, like nicotinamide, might not be beneficial as they compete for the same pathway in the body.
  • Herbal Supplements: There may be a possibility that certain herbal supplements that impact energy metabolism, blood sugar, or lipid levels might have additive or conflicting effects when taken with NAD+ precursors.
  • Minerals: High doses of minerals like zinc and copper can potentially interact with B vitamins, including niacin. The extent and significance of these interactions in the context of NR and NMN supplementation are not well-characterized.
  • Antioxidants: There is some evidence to suggest that high doses of antioxidants might interfere with the cellular signaling roles of NAD+ precursors. However, this interaction is not fully understood and requires more research.

When you purchase linked products presented on this page, Supplement Sciences, LLC receives affiliate fees so that our dietitians can continue to create great content.

Thank you for your support!

Shop For NAD+ Precursors

Why Professionals Choose the Fullscript Formulary

Your health is on the line. Health professionals know that many other online and retail options set a very low bar for quality–sometimes amazingly low. The Fullscript formulary is the most secure online source for the highest quality brands securely sourced to assure freshness and purity. Here’s what makes Fullscript the best:

  • Meticulous vetting of brand quality. Health professionals trust Fullscript to continuously monitor the quality of each item on the platform. Other retailers operate with profit as their highest or only motive when choosing brands. Fullscript cares only about quality and reliability. Unlike discount stores, large online marketplaces, and other retailers you won’t find ingredients sourced from China or other questionable locations or companies.
  • Always 20% Discount off the manufacturer’s retail price. When you follow any link from Supplement-Sciences.com, you will automatically get 20% off the retail price.
  • Free shipping over $50.
  • Freshness. Fullscript prioritizes freshness over bulk buying even if it means an increased risk of briefly being out of stock.
  • Top quality phone and online support. When you call, knowledgeable humans at Fullscript answer your questions.
  • How It Works:
    • Easy Sign-up & No Spam Email: Click the “View Product” button below to be taken to Fullscript’s login page where you can quickly create your secure account with just your name, email, and phone number. Then you will be taken directly to the product page.
    • Wide variety of supplement options: Once you sign in to your account, you are not limited to the products listed below. You will see similar items listed at the bottom of each product page on Fullscript.
    • Search For What You Want: Once inside Fullscript, you can search for the exact brands and products you want from their wide selection of quality brands.

Order Niacin Supplements

Flush Free Niacin (500 mg)

Manufacturer Description: Niacin is a water-soluble B Vitamin whose main role is to serve as a precursor for two essential biochemical coenzymes, NAD and NADP.* These two cofactors participate in virtually every aspect of energy production and other metabolic processes.* Niacin coenzymes help the cell use carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to produce energy and are critical for DNA replication and repair.* Inositol Hexanicotinate is a stable, non-flushing source of Niacin. This superior source of Niacin works to reduce the common “niacin-flush” associated with high-dose Niacin supplements.

Take 1 capsule daily as needed, preferably with a meal, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner.

Amount Per One Capsule Serving
Niacin … 500mg (B-3)(from 640mg of Inositol Hexanicotinate)
Inositol … 135mg (from 640mg of Inositol Hexanicotinate)

Order NMN

Dosage:

The optimal dosage of NMN for humans is still not well-established, and further research is needed to determine safe and effective dosages for specific health outcomes. The lowest effective dosage of NMN (Nicotinamide Mononucleotide) in studies can vary depending on the specific study and the desired outcome. However, some studies have suggested that even relatively low doses of NMN can have beneficial effects.

NMN was found to increase muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic women at a dose of 250 mg per day. [PMC8550608] The effects do seem to be dependent on dose with many people taking 500mg to 1000 mg per day for anti-aging benefits.

Avoid Fakes: 65% of NMN Supplements on The Major Online Marketplace Site

ProHealth Longevity published this article, in which they discuss their (2020-2021) investigation into adulterated and counterfeit NMN products sold on the major online marketplace site. They discovered that many of these products had fake Certificates of Authenticity and other documentation. Consumer Lab and other parties have now reported similar findings.

During their research, ProHealth Longevity found that more than half of the NMN products tested contained no NMN at all, while others had less than 80% purity. Some suppliers were selling low-cost vitamin B3 as NMN.

Consumer Lab tested the 21 NMN brands with the highest market share on this online marketplace and found that only three of the brands contained their claimed amounts of NMN. Consumer Lab notes that many of the products that contained virtually no NMN had hundreds or thousands of positive reviews on Amazon, raising questions about how those reviews were obtained.

These Are Trustworthy Sources For NMN


NMN (Nicotinamide mononucleotide)

Jarrow Formulas® Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) is an efficient precursor to the essential vitamin Bmetabolite, NAD+. NAD+ is essential to cellular energy production and mitochondrial function.* Levels of NAD+ decline with aging and high caloric intake, which can compromise mitochondrial function.* NAD+ is a required cofactor for sirtuins (SIRT), enzymes that promote healthy aging by regulating gene expression, DNA repair, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism.* Suggested Use: Take 1 to 2 tablets per day or as directed by your qualified healthcare professional.

Amount Per 1 Tablet Serving
NMN
 … 125mg (ß-Nicotinamide Mononucleotide)


NMN Powder or Capsules from Renue By Science

Renue By Science is one of a handful of trusted suppliers of NMN and a few of other anti-aging supplements. It offers NMN in the higher dosages (500-1000 mg) that many experts recommend.

When You Take NMN, You Need A Methylation Supplement

Supplementing with NMN increases NAD+ levels, which then break down into nicotinamide (Vitamin B3). This nicotinamide degradation can consume betaine (aka TMG), a key methyl donor. The reduced betaine levels could affect important processes like DNA methylation. So, if you’re taking NMN, adding a betaine supplement may help maintain your methylation health.

Adding betaine to your NMN supplementation routine can offer multiple benefits. Betaine, also known as Trimethylglycine (TMG), originally came from the beetroot plant. Betaine/TMG is a key player when it comes to donating methyl groups, which are essential for DNA methylation. The availability of methyl donors like betaine, methionine, and choline directly affects DNA methylation rates. Betaine also reduces inflammation by suppressing the activity of inflammatory markers like TNF-α, COX2, and NF-kB. [PMC9861325]

Although there is not enough research into the optimal dosage of betaine/TMG, many clinicians recommend TMG supplements be dosed in equal proportion to NMN, taking an equal number of milligrams of each.

Betaine TMG by BrainMD

Mood and Methyl Support* Betaine TMG provides betaine, also called trimethylglycine, which occurs naturally in the body and provides methyl groups that support genetic, epigenetic, and numerous metabolic life functions.* Betaine also can supplement the metabolic actions of SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine). Betaine TMG is a component of the comprehensive brain program developed by leading clinical neuroscientist Daniel Amen, MD. Enhances mood benefits of SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine)* Rich source of metabolically essential methyl groups* Supports metabolic recycling of homocysteine* Important protectant for cell water balance*

Suggested Use: Take 2 capsules daily between meals, to a maximum 6 capsules daily.

Amount Per 2 Capsule Serving
Betaine
 … 1000mg (Trimethylglycine)


TMG by Bio-Nutritional Formulas

TMG is a natural source of methyl groups. The process to detox homocysteine is called methylation, which depends on the presence of sufficient methyl donors. TMG donates one of its methyl groups to convert homocysteine to methionine, leaving beneficial Dimethylglycine (DMG) for energy support.*

Suggested Use:

Use 1 to 3 scoops (provided) daily with or between meals.
1 level scoop = 500mg
5 scoops = 1 teaspoon.

Order NR Supplements

NR is another option that can be used an NAD+ precursor.

TruNiagen 500 mg NR

Help drive cellular energy production and promote cellular repair with TRU NIAGEN® PRO 500. This supplement delivers the highest dose available today of NIAGEN® nicotinamide riboside (NR).  With 500mg of NR in each capsule, it increases NAD+ by an estimated 80%.**

 Available only through licensed healthcare professionals, TRU NIAGEN® PRO 500:
• Significantly increases NAD+*
• Supports ongoing mitochondrial health*
• Increases cellular energy production*

 *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
**Based on the dose-dependent clinical effects of 100, 300, and 1000 mg/day Niagen®
Adults take 1 capsule daily or as recommended by your healthcare professional

Amount Per 1 Capsule Serving
NIAGEN® … 500mg (nicotinamide riboside chloride)

To Sum It Up

The use of NAD precursors such as NR and NMN to elevate NAD levels may present a parallel to the benefits documented in IV NAD therapy in the context of recovery from alcoholism or drug addiction. This concept echoes the belief of Bill W., co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous, in the potential of high-dose niacin to aid in addiction recovery.

By raising NAD+ levels in the body, these oral supplements could support cellular repair, improve energy metabolism, and aid in neurological function restoration, all of which are crucial in overcoming substance abuse. These supplements offer a valuable addition to a holistic recovery program, providing a more accessible and less costly option compared to IV therapy. Recovering from addiction requires a comprehensive approach encompassing medical, psychological, and social support. As research in this area progresses, NAD precursors, inspired in part by historical perspectives like those of Bill W., stand to possibly improve recovery and support sustained well-being.


This Article is Not a Substitute for Medical Advice

Dietary supplements are not designed to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. The Supplement Sciences website seeks to provide comprehensive access to the most relevant supplement information along with convenient online ordering. We do not provide medical advice and cannot guarantee that every product suggested is completely without risk. Since each person is unique in their health history and medication use, it is important to discuss supplements with your personal physician. Specifically, pregnant women and individuals being treated for cancer or liver or kidney problems must consult their physician about every nutritional supplement they plan to take. People taking medications for the treatment of HIV or with a history of organ transplant must not take supplements without consulting with their physician.


Citrulline: How It Benefits Blood Flow and Athletic Performance

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Along with providing information on whether Citrulline supplements might be right for you, this article also links to Fullscript where you can buy Citrulline supplements online through the secure healthcare formulary and get free shipping and 20% off the retail price of professional-grade supplements.

Citrulline is a natural compound, found mainly in watermelon, and plays a crucial role in the body’s nitric oxide production and amino acid synthesis. Many people turn to citrulline for its ability to support cardiovascular health, enhance athletic performance, and promote muscle recovery. This article delves into the science behind citrulline, exploring how it can contribute to overall well-being and fitness.

What Is Citrulline?

Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid, which means the body can produce it even if it’s not obtained through diet. Initially discovered in watermelon, citrulline is named after ‘citrullus,’ the Latin word for this fruit. It plays a key role in several bodily functions, primarily in the urea cycle. This cycle involves the conversion of harmful substances like ammonia into urea, which is safely excreted from the body.

Unlike some amino acids, citrulline does not directly build proteins. Instead, it increases the levels of certain key substances in the body. One of these is arginine, another amino acid that is crucial for heart health and immune system function. Citrulline also helps to boost nitric oxide production. Nitric oxide is vital for blood vessel dilation, which ensures efficient blood flow and better oxygen delivery throughout the body.

In terms of dietary supplements, citrulline is available in two main forms: L-citrulline and citrulline malate. L-citrulline is the free-form of the amino acid, while the citrulline malate combines citrulline with the amino acid malate, which plays a role in the energy cycle of cells. Both forms are popular among athletes and fitness enthusiasts for their potential to enhance endurance and recovery.

This amino acid has gained attention not just in the athletic world but also among those looking for general wellness benefits. From supporting cardiovascular health to enhancing physical performance and recovery, citrulline offers a range of advantages that we will explore in the following sections.

What Are the Benefits of Citrulline?

  • Enhances Athletic Performance: Citrulline has been shown to increase nitric oxide production in the body, leading to enhanced blood flow and oxygen delivery to muscles. This process is crucial for athletes, as it can help to improve endurance, reduce fatigue during exercise, and increase workout intensity.
  • Supports Cardiovascular Health: By aiding in the production of nitric oxide, citrulline helps dilate blood vessels, which can improve blood flow throughout the body. This effect is beneficial for heart health, as it can lead to lower blood pressure and reduced strain on the cardiovascular system.
  • Promotes Muscle Recovery: Post-exercise, citrulline can help reduce muscle soreness and accelerate the muscle recovery process. This is particularly important for athletes and fitness enthusiasts who engage in frequent and intense physical activities.
  • Boosts Immune System: Citrulline plays a role in supporting the immune system. It helps in enhancing the body’s defense mechanisms, making it more effective in fighting infections and maintaining overall health.
  • Enhances Sexual Health: The improvement in blood flow due to increased nitric oxide production also extends to sexual health. Citrulline can enhance erectile function and overall sexual performance by improving blood circulation.
  • Supports the Urea Cycle: Citrulline is crucial in the urea cycle, a process that detoxifies ammonia produced during protein metabolism. By effectively removing ammonia, citrulline helps maintain a healthy nitrogen balance in the body, which is essential for various bodily functions.
  • May Improve Digestive Health: Citrulline may contribute to better digestive health. By aiding in the removal of ammonia and enhancing blood flow to the digestive organs, it can help maintain a healthy gut environment and potentially alleviate some digestive issues.
  • Reduces Symptoms of Mild Erectile Dysfunction: Citrulline supplements may enhance nitric oxide production, improving blood flow. This effect can be particularly beneficial for individuals with mild erectile dysfunction, enhancing sexual performance and satisfaction by facilitating better blood circulation to the genital area.
  • Improves Blood Flow in Individuals with Peripheral Artery Disease: In those suffering from peripheral artery disease, citrulline can play a crucial role. It helps improve blood circulation to the limbs, potentially alleviating symptoms like pain or cramping during physical activities like walking.
  • Alleviates Symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia: Citrulline has shown promise in improving blood flow and reducing the risk of blood vessel blockages in individuals with sickle cell anemia. This can help alleviate pain and reduce complications associated with the disease.
  • Boosts Cognitive Function: By increasing blood flow to the brain, citrulline may enhance cognitive functions. Improved circulation can lead to better oxygen and nutrient delivery to the brain, potentially enhancing memory, focus, and overall cognitive performance.
  • Supports Kidney Function: Citrulline may be beneficial for kidney health. It aids in the detoxification processes and improves blood circulation, which can contribute to the overall functioning and health of the kidneys, especially in individuals with compromised kidney function.
  • Helps in Certain Metabolic Conditions: Citrulline might improve metabolic health by enhancing insulin sensitivity and overall metabolism. This could be particularly beneficial for individuals with conditions like type 2 diabetes, as better insulin sensitivity can help manage blood sugar levels.
  • May Aid in Weight Loss Efforts: While citrulline is not a weight loss supplement, its ability to enhance exercise performance and facilitate muscle recovery can indirectly support weight loss and body composition goals by enabling more efficient and effective workouts.
  • Reduces Ammonia Levels in Blood: By efficiently converting ammonia into urea in the urea cycle, citrulline helps reduce ammonia levels in the blood. This is crucial for individuals with certain metabolic disorders where ammonia accumulation can be harmful.

Food Sources of Citrulline

Food SourceCitrulline Content per Serving
Watermelon (1 cup)250 mg
Cucumbers (1 cup)150 mg
Pumpkins (1 cup)200 mg
Bitter Melon (1 cup)130 mg
Squash (1 cup)210 mg
Muskmelon (1 cup)240 mg
Gourds (1 cup)180 mg
Walnuts (1 oz)3 mg
Almonds (1 oz)2 mg
Chickpeas (1 cup)5 mg
Amounts listed are approximate

Are Citrulline Supplements Safe?

Citrulline is generally considered safe for most people when consumed in moderate amounts, either through dietary sources or as a supplement. This amino acid is naturally occurring in the body and in many foods, making it a familiar substance to our biological systems. The side effects are rare and usually mild, typically seen only at very high doses. Studies have shown that even in supplement form, citrulline is well-tolerated by the body and does not pose significant risks when used appropriately. However, it’s always advisable for individuals, especially those with pre-existing health conditions or those taking medication, to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement, including citrulline, to ensure it aligns safely with their health needs and conditions.

Medication Interactions with Citrulline

  • Nitrates (for heart disease): Citrulline has the potential to enhance the blood-pressure-lowering effects of nitrates, which are commonly used in treating heart conditions. This combination can lead to an excessive drop in blood pressure, causing symptoms like dizziness or fainting, especially when standing up.
  • Blood Pressure Lowering Medications: Since Citrulline can naturally lower blood pressure by increasing nitric oxide production and dilating blood vessels, taking it alongside other blood pressure medications might cause blood pressure to drop too low. This hypotensive effect could result in symptoms like lightheadedness, weakness, or even the risk of falls.
  • Erectile Dysfunction Drugs (such as Viagra, Cialis): Erectile dysfunction medications, like Viagra and Cialis, work by increasing blood flow. When combined with Citrulline, there’s a risk of further enhancing this effect. This can lead to a significant decrease in blood pressure, which may manifest as lightheadedness, blurred vision, or in severe cases, a risk of heart attack or stroke.
  • Medications that Increase Blood Flow (vasodilators): Vasodilators are medications designed to widen blood vessels. When used with Citrulline, the combined effect on blood vessel dilation can be amplified, potentially leading to low blood pressure. This might result in dizziness, fainting, or even a risk of heart complications if the blood pressure drops too sharply.
  • Any Medications Metabolized by the Liver: Citrulline might interfere with the liver’s ability to metabolize certain medications, potentially altering their effectiveness or increasing the likelihood of side effects. This interaction can affect a wide range of drugs, as many are processed in the liver.

Supplement Interactions with Citrulline

  • Nitric Oxide Boosters (e.g., L-Arginine, Beetroot): These supplements are used to increase nitric oxide levels in the body, similar to Citrulline. When combined, the effect of both supplements on nitric oxide production might be amplified, leading to excessive blood vessel dilation. This could result in very low blood pressure, and symptoms such as lightheadedness or fainting, particularly in sensitive individuals or when taken in high doses.
  • Blood Pressure Lowering Supplements (e.g., Hawthorn, Coenzyme Q10): Supplements like Hawthorn and Coenzyme Q10 are known for their ability to lower blood pressure. If used in conjunction with Citrulline, which also has blood pressure-lowering effects, there might be a cumulative effect leading to hypotension. This significant drop in blood pressure could lead to symptoms like dizziness, blurred vision, or even more severe cardiovascular issues.
  • Herbal Supplements with Diuretic Properties (e.g., Dandelion, Green Tea): Diuretic supplements increase urine output and can lower blood pressure. Combining these with Citrulline may result in an additive hypotensive effect, potentially causing an excessive drop in blood pressure. This is especially risky for individuals already prone to low blood pressure or those on blood pressure medications.
  • Stimulants (e.g., Caffeine, Guarana): Stimulants like caffeine and guarana typically increase heart rate and blood pressure. Using them with Citrulline might counteract the vasodilating effects of Citrulline, leading to unpredictable cardiovascular responses. This could manifest as irregular heart rhythms, increased blood pressure variability, or reduced effectiveness of either supplement.
  • Anticoagulants or Antiplatelet Supplements (e.g., Fish Oil, Garlic, Ginkgo Biloba): These supplements possess blood-thinning properties and can increase the risk of bleeding. When used with Citrulline, which may also influence blood flow, there could be an increased risk of bleeding, particularly during surgery or for individuals with bleeding disorders.

When you purchase linked products presented on this page, Supplement Sciences, LLC receives affiliate fees so that our dietitians can continue to create great content.

Thank you for your support!

Order Citrulline Online

Why Professionals Choose the Fullscript Formulary

Your health is on the line. Health professionals know that many other online and retail options set a very low bar for quality–sometimes amazingly low. The Fullscript formulary is the most secure online source for the highest quality brands securely sourced to assure freshness and purity. Here’s what makes Fullscript the best:

  • Meticulous vetting of brand quality. Health professionals trust Fullscript to continuously monitor the quality of each item on the platform. Other retailers operate with profit as their highest or only motive when choosing brands. Fullscript cares only about quality and reliability. Unlike discount stores, large online marketplaces, and other retailers you won’t find ingredients sourced from China or other questionable locations or companies.
  • Always 20% Discount off the manufacturer’s retail price. When you follow any link from Supplement-Sciences.com, you will automatically get 20% off the retail price.
  • Free shipping over $50.
  • Freshness. Fullscript prioritizes freshness over bulk buying even if it means an increased risk of briefly being out of stock.
  • Top quality phone and online support. When you call, knowledgeable humans at Fullscript answer your questions.
  • How It Works:
    • Easy Sign-up & No Spam Email: Click the “View Product” button below to be taken to Fullscript’s login page where you can quickly create your secure account with just your name, email, and phone number. Then you will be taken directly to the product page.
    • Wide variety of supplement options: Once you sign in to your account, you are not limited to the products listed below. You will see similar items listed at the bottom of each product page on Fullscript.
    • Search For What You Want: Once inside Fullscript, you can search for the exact brands and products you want from their wide selection of quality brands.

L-Citrulline Powder by NOW Foods

  • Healthy Immune System Function*

Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid that is an important intermediate in the urea cycle, functioning along with other amino acids to rid the body of ammonia, a byproduct of protein metabolism.* Citrulline also plays an important role in the healing process and in the maintenance of a healthy immune system.*

This product is sold by weight not volume.

Natural color variation may occur in this product.
Take 1/2 level teaspoons 1 to 2 times daily between meals.

Amount per 1/2 Level Teaspoon Serving
L-Citrulline … 1.5g (1,500mg)


Food First!

Although this article discusses supplements in detail, don’t forget that we are absolutely committed to the “Food First” approach to nutrition. When it comes to your health, the totality of your eating habits far surpasses the impact of individual nutrients or any single supplement you consume. Even though this article doesn’t delve into the broader picture of your overall diet, it’s crucial to keep this element at the forefront of our minds. Your food needs to provide all the vitamins, minerals, fiber, and phytochemicals to nourish your body systems down to the cellular level.

Food choices, rather than supplements, are the most critical factors for a healthy gut microbiome. These trillions of tiny inhabitants in your gut affect your brain waves; they orchestrate your immune system. They possess the power to create molecules that can switch genes on or off and are even capable of synthesizing neurotransmitters. Opting for organic foods and steering clear of plastic packaging (including those labeled BPA-free) is a smart move to limit toxin exposure. The sum of all these parts leads to a powerful conclusion: the ultimate key to your health lies in the quality and balance of the food you consume. Supplements are secondary.

To Sum It Up

Citrulline supplements offer a range of health benefits that can be a valuable addition to a healthy lifestyle. From enhancing athletic performance and cardiovascular health to promoting muscle recovery and boosting immune system function, Citrulline has proven its versatility. It also shows potential in improving sexual health, supporting kidney function, and aiding in certain metabolic conditions. The ability of Citrulline to reduce symptoms of mild erectile dysfunction and improve blood flow for those with conditions like peripheral artery disease further underscores its varied benefits. Moreover, its role in reducing ammonia levels in the blood and possibly aiding in cognitive functions makes it an interesting supplement for overall well-being. While Citrulline is generally considered safe and well-tolerated, it’s important to use it responsibly as part of a balanced approach to health.


This Article is Not a Substitute for Medical Advice

Dietary supplements are not designed to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. The Supplement Sciences website seeks to provide comprehensive access to the most relevant supplement information along with convenient online ordering. We do not provide medical advice and cannot guarantee that every product suggested is completely without risk. Since each person is unique in their health history and medication use, it is important to discuss supplements with your personal physician. Specifically, pregnant women and individuals being treated for cancer or liver or kidney problems must consult their physician about every nutritional supplement they plan to take. People taking medications for the treatment of HIV or with a history of organ transplant must not take supplements without consulting with their physician.